Filipino (Pilipino) is the national language of the Philippines. Ethnologue.com provides a comprehensive list and brief description of the major Philippine languages. Depending on who you consult, there are anywhere from 70 to 171 distinct languages in the Philippines. These are actually distinct different languages - not dialects. Filipino and English are the two official languages. Taglish is a combination of Tagalog and English. There are 12 Philippine languages with over one million native speakers. The most widely spoken languages are Cebuano, Tagalog, Ilocano, and Hiligaynon (Ilonggo).
Language maps, showing the language for each region of the Philippines, can be viewed at the Ethnologue web site.
There are roughly 3 families of languages broken down by region - Northern, Central, and Southern Philippines. The major languages of the northern region are Ilokano, Tagalog, Kapampangan, and Pangasinan languages which are located in northern and central Luzon. The largest group of central Philippine languages are the Visayan languages and Bikol. The Visayan languages are composed of Cebuano, Hiligaynon, and Waray-Waray. The southern Philippine languages such as Maranao and Subanun are concentrated in Mindanao.
There are a number of words shared between the Philippine languages. For example, salamat (thank you) is used in both Tagalog and Cebuano. A common phrase is kumusta ka, a greeting in Tagalog, Cebuano, and Ilocano. In Cebuano, asawa (wife) is used in Tagalog, but means spouse (husband or wife) in Tagalog. Spanish was spoken years ago in the Philippines, and that influence is apparent today. Typically counting is done in Spanish.